Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Homelessness Among Veterans of the U.S. Military Essay

2. Contributing Factors The presence of additional risk for homelessness specifically associated with Veteran status is puzzling in that it occurs among a population that shows better outcomes on almost all socioeconomic measures and that has exclusive access to an extensive system of benefits that include comprehensive healthcare services, disability and pension assistance, and homeless services (Fargo, et al, 24). In spite of having many advantages, veterans over-represent in the homeless population. The question â€Å"Why?† begs an answer. Forty years have passed since the Vietnam Conflict ended and homeless veterans became a representative image in American society. Surprisingly, it appears there are no studies on the factors contributing†¦show more content†¦3. Current Solutions To achieve the goal of ending homelessness among veterans by 2015, the VA has numerous programs. These include providing healthcare, rehabilitation services, employment assistance, and transitional housing for veterans, and supportive services for the families of veterans to help them better understand and deal with conditions the veteran spouse may have. Additionally, the VA works with the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide long-term housing solutions for homeless veterans (Homeless Veterans, For Homeless Veterans). In addition to programs of the federal government, many private organizations work to prevent or end the homelessness of veterans. For example, the Wounded Warrior Project assists wounded veterans to help them recover from their physical and/or mental injuries and reintegrate into productive roles in society. Enabling them to provide for themselves, helps prevent them from becoming homeless (How We Serve). The American Legion has a Homeless Veterans Task Force to address the problem of veteran homelessness. They also work with federal organizations in drafting laws and policies to care for veterans’ needs, as well as working with corporate partners to promote hiring of veterans (Homeless Veterans (The American Legion)). The Disabled American Veteran (DAV) organization works with veterans to help them get theShow MoreRelatedThe Disgrace of Veteran Homelessness Essay1400 Words   |  6 PagesThe military has been instrumental in the protection and development of U.S interests a round the world. From the Revolutionary War, which established the United States as a nation, through the World Wars, which set up the U.S as one of the world super powers, to its current war on terror, the military has helped and protected U.S. interests around the world. During all these wars American soldiers have proudly served their country. Because of these wars America is famous throughout the world forRead MoreTheu.s. Housing And Urban Development Essay1461 Words   |  6 PagesStates government to sufficiently care for their men and women in the military can be seen in the number of homeless veterans. In fact, the U.S. Housing and Urban development (H.U.D.) reports there are over 39,000 members of the armed services living on the street (2016). The main causes of homelessness among veterans include lack of housing, jobs, and access to healthcare (National Coalition for Homeless Veterans, n.d.). Veterans run a higher risk of becoming homeless if they are: suffering from aRe ad MoreHomeless Veterans Are Becoming More Prevalent Of The United States886 Words   |  4 PagesINTRODUCTION American homeless veterans are becoming more prevalent in the United States. Research will show that American veterans are an overrepresented population among the homeless in the U.S. A homeless veteran is an individual who lives on the streets, in abandoned buildings, vehicles, encampments, shelters, or transitional housing (Veterans Today, 2013). As a matter of fact, homeless veterans do not have a permanent residence under their control. Homelessness in general includes those whoRead MoreThe Social Welfare Issue Of The Vietnam War1481 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Homelessness is and can be a temporary living condition of an individual that can’t financially or physically afford to pay for a place to live or if their current living conditions are unstable. In our society, there are many people who are homeless; some have no friends or family support. Some believe that they may be a burden to others who may try to help them, and some may just choose to be homeless. Many reasons lead people to become homeless, people sometimes just hit the bottomRead MoreHomelessness Among American Veterans Research2029 Words   |  9 PagesHomelessness Among American Veterans Research Paper An issue that has been around for decades which still remains in the United Sates today is homelessness among veterans. Vanessa Turner has a story that needs to be heard by many. As a homeless veteran, Turner joined the U.S. military in 1997 and later, proudly advanced to the rank of a sergeant. In 2003, Turner suffered from a traumatic injury while serving in Iraq. In suffocating 130-degrees fahrenheit heat, Turner fell into a coma and nearlyRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder And Treatment For Mental Health Disorders2031 Words   |  9 PagesThe fast paced, often demanding world of life in the military, and the experiences of combat and death, create situations in which many veterans experience psychological stress. These stressful situations are typically complicated further by the self-medication of substance use, and other psychological disorders that may be present. There is a large number of military personnel that are facing stressful issues such as homelessness, suicid e, and substance abuse, which could lead to them getting involvedRead MoreThe Homeless Are Homeless : A Middle Class Lifestyle After Marriage1654 Words   |  7 Pagesshelter they were barely getting the nutrition that is needed to survive. So many people can end up homeless from children, to adults, and even veterans. According to Doran, fifteen percent of America’s homeless are chronically homeless, which means the person has been homeless continuously for a year or more or has had at least four episodes of homelessness in the past three years (Doran). The reason there are so many homeless people now in the country is because of a very punitive and moralisticRead MoreHistory Of Social Welfare Of Veterans1532 Words   |  7 PagesThe paper will address the history of social welfare of veterans the social, economic struggles of departure from the armed services to become a productive member of society discussed some of the stats on veteran employment, health issues, and hom elessness elucidated some the services veteran received after their enlistment from active duty. Introduced non-profit organization resources for vets of all spectrums going through the filling process to file disability compensation claims. ThereforeRead MoreThe Homeless Veteran Crisis : Theu.s. Housing And Urban Development Essay1768 Words   |  8 PagesThe Homeless Veteran Crisis The failure of the United States government to sufficiently care for their men and women in the military can be seen in the number of homeless veterans. In fact, the U.S. Housing and Urban development (H.U.D.) reports there are over 39,000 members of the armed services living on the street (2016). The main causes of vagrancy among veterans include lack of housing, jobs, and access to health care (National Coalition for Homeless Veterans, n.d.). Men and women ex-soldiersRead MoreThe National Law Center On Homelessness Poverty Essay1666 Words   |  7 PagesThe National Law Center on Homelessness Poverty currently estimates that each year at least 2.5 to 3.5 million Americans sleep in shelters, transitional housing, and public places not meant for human habitation. At least an additional 7.4 million have lost their own homes and are doubled-up with others due to economic necessity. According to Point-in-Time Count, San Diego had 8,692 homeless people. Almost 3,800 of them were slee ping in emergency shelters or transitional housing. The Count showed

Friday, May 15, 2020

A Financial Comparison Of Sainsbury And Tesco - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2164 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? The main aim of preparing financial report is because it provides information about the firms performance in the market. This report will focus mainly on financial analysis which will. The main aim of doing this report is to make recommendations and conclusion based on financial analysis. The information gathered for this report is collected mainly through annual report and the site of the company and Accounting books (Accounting for management, 2010). The Accounting Policies Accounting policies reflect the basic business facts which are important to investors capability to make a decisions of investing in a firm. Some of the accounting policies are described below: Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "A Financial Comparison Of Sainsbury And Tesco" essay for you Create order BASIS OF PREPARATION The preparation of financial statement are done on basis of historic cost convention, which excludes financial instruments, investment properties and derivatives available for sale of financial assets which are measured in fair value. The related assumptions and estimates are based on historical experiences and various other factors. The Group which has the authority to govern the financial and operating policies of a firm which are associated with shareholding of more than one half of the voting rights is known as Subsidiaries. Joint ventures are legally formed entities between two or more firms in which the company has interest. In joint ventures investments are carried in the Group balance sheet at the cost plus post-acquisition changes in the Groups share of net assets, less any impairment in value (J Sainsbury, 2009). REVENUE RECOGNITION The revenue is said to be recognised when the major rewards and risks of products and services have been given to buyer and which can be measured. Revenue is money earned through sales by retail outlets (Frank Wood, 2008). FIXED ASSTES AND DEPRICIATION: Land and buildings are known as fixed assets. They are settled at cost less accumulated depreciation. During construction properties are assumed at cost less recognised impairment losses. Costs are any attributable and borrowing costs which are financed in accordance with the Groups accounting policy. Depreciation is calculated as per the write off cost of the assets to their remaining values, on a straight-line method on the basis such as freehold buildings and leasehold properties (J Sainsbury, 2009). INVENTORIES Inventories are normally calculated at lower cost, in warehouses it is valued on a basis on goods-in and goods-out basis, and at retail outlets they are valued at calculated average cost. All direct expenditure and other indirect costs which are incurred in bringing inventories to their location are considered as costs (J Sainsbury, 2009). OPERATING PROFITS From operating expenses a large amount is outflow on employees costs, which increased from ( £m)1,957 in 2008 to 2,003 in 2009. Profit on sale of properties is high ( £m) 57 in 2009 as compared to 7 in 2008. Auditors remuneration also increased to 1.7 million pounds in 2009 from 1.5 in 2008 (J Sainsbury, 2009). Property Plants and Equipments The cost has increased to 12,351 in 2009 than 11,745 in 2008 ( £M), which indirectly increases the accumulated depreciation and impairment. The net book value of land and buildings comprises of 2009 2008 Freehold land and building 4,777 4,502 Long leasehold 951 938 Short leasehold 520 505 It measures companys earning power from ongoing operations which is equal to earnings before deducting the interest payments, and income taxes, which is also called earnings before interest and taxes or operating income (J Sainsbury, 2009). PROVISIONS It includes provisions for Group onerous leases, Group restructuring and disposal provision, Group long service awards, where overall group provisons have increased from  £73 m to  £76m in 2009. But the companys total provision have decreased by  £1m in 2009 to  £28m from  £29m in 2008 (Sainsbury 2009).The lease provision covers outstanding lease commitments of up to an average of 30 years the restructuring provisions are likely to be utilised in the financial year beginning 22 March 2009 (J Sainsbury, 2009). Financial Performance and Analysis Ratio analysis is used by individuals and by firms to conduct a quantitative analysis of information in companys financial statement. Data is collected from accounting statements and converted into statistics. The statistics derived can be used to study a firms performance over a period of time. (Owen, 2003) Ratios can be placed in four main headings: Investment Profitability Cash conversion Gearing. Solvency Investment ratios These are useful for institutional and private investors as they give an indication of companys investment potential (Holmes, Sugdon Gee, 2008) Dividend cover = N.P.A.T and preference dividend / Paid and proposed ordinary dividend This ratio shows the distribution procedure of the company as it pays how many times the current dividend could have been paid out of current profits and by implicating how much profit has been retained to finance future growth of the company. Earnings per share = N.P.A.T and preference dividend / No of ordinary shares in issue during the year This ratio indicates the earning per share when issued. A potential investor will prefer to invest in a company whose earnings per share are increasing. Profitability Ratios: Profitability ratio makes one understand how much profit a business makes. It also compares with the previous periods and/or with other companies. There are four major profitability ratios: Return on capital Employed = Profit x 100 / Capital The best way accessing profitability is to calculate a ratio known Return on Capital Employed. ROCE is expressed in percentage. It indicates the return on capital which is invested in business.It is one of the most important ratios (Owen, 2003). Gross Profit Ratios = Gross Profit x 100 / Total sales revenue This ratio explains us how successful the firm has been at the business. It is the difference between COGS and net sales. It also measures the profit earned by the company in relation to the amount of sales that it has made Operating profit Ratio = Gross Profit x 100 / Cost of Goods Sold This ratio measures the amount of profit added to the cost of goods sold. The cost of goods sold plus profit equals the sales revenue. The mark-up can be reduced to encourage extra sales activity, but this can effect by reduction in gross profit. Net Profit ratio = Net Profit Before taxation x 100 / Total sales revenue This ratio indicates the ability of the firm to face economic conditions e.g. low demand. It is also possible to establish a current trend (Owen, 2003) Cash Conversion Ratios: These ratios are concerned with measure the efficiency with asset. The greater the rate of turnover the more efficient is the utilisation of asset other things being equal. So it is defined as test of the relationship between sales and various assets of firm (Owen, 2003). Stock Turnover ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Stock It indicates that how much stock has been sold and quantity of stock remained in warehouse. It relates with the profit of company. It is expressed in numbers. Trade debtor collection period ratio = Average trade debtors x 365 / Total credit sales It shows the debts collection of the firm. It shows how quickly receivables or debtors are converted into cash. It is the liquidity of debtors of a firm. Trade creditors collection period = Average trade creditors x 365 / Total credit sales The credit period enjoyed by the firm to make payment to their creditors is known as creditors turnover ratio. It includes all bills payable and other sundry c reditors. Gearing ratios: Gearing ratios are of two types: Interest Cover = P.B.T / Interest charges It explains the outstanding debt the company could easily pay. The more ratio the more debt of the company. When companys ratio comes below one it means that it cannot fulfil its interest expenses. Gearing Ratio = Preference shares + LTL x 100 / Shareholders fund + LTL It demonstrates the degree to which a companys activities are funded by owners funds against creditors funds. Solvency Ratios: Liquidity ratios measure the degree to which assets can be quickly converted into cash. They try to access how much cash the firm has on hand in the short term mainly for next financial year (Cox Fardon, 1998). There are two major liquidity ratios: Current Asset Turnover ratio = Current Asset / Current Liabilities It is also known as Working Capital ratio. It is used in finding the financial position of firm. It is obtained by dividing current assets by current liabilities. Acid Test Turnover Ratio = Current Asset Stock / Current Liabilities It indicates the capacity of the firm to pay its amount when it becomes due. It describes the firms liquidity position than the current asset ratio. It is suggested that the ratio must be at least 1:1. Comparison: Sainsbury has monetary downturn in the market in 2008 2009 when compared to Tesco in various modes of financial aspects. Sainsbury gross profit has decreased in 2009 compared to 2008, but in case of operating profit it has increased in 2009 compared to 2008. The stock turnover days are low means they supply stock in high quantities. In comparison with Tesco, Sainsbury has low percentage of profits, but the stock days are less which means that the company has high stock turnover rate which is good for the company. Financial Statement: Financial statements provide an outline of a firms economic condition in both short and long term. All the significant financial information of a business venture presented in an ordered manner and in a form easy to understand is known as financial statements (Maire Loughran 2010).There are four basic financial statements such as: Balance Sheet Group income statement Statement of retained earnings Cash Flow Statement 4.1 Balance Sheet: It is the statement which describes the financial position of a business for a financial year which describes the assets, liabilities, and owners equity at a particular point in time. All accounts such as an asset, a liability or equity are categorised in the General ledger of the companys accounting statement. These ratios are based on the profit and cash flow is very vital for accessing companys finance stability (Atrill McLaney, 2008) 4.2 Group income statement: Group income statement is income less expenses. If companys income is more than expense, then company have a net profit. And in case Expense more than income then the company have a net loss.The purpose of profit and loss statement is to identify if business has made profit or loss over financial year (Maire Loughran, 2010). 4.3 Cash Flow Statement: Cash flow statement which is also known as fund flow statement in financial accounting. It keeps the track of transaction of cash in and cash out of business. The cash flow statement is an analytical tool that is used in determining the short-term viability of a company, mainly its ability to pay bills on time (Cox Fardon, 1998) The people and groups who are concerned in cash flow statements are: Accounting personnel, Prospective  lenders  or  creditors, Potential  investors, Shareholders. 4.4 Statement of recognised income and expenditure Retained Earnings = retained earnings at the beginning paid dividend + Net income. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) requires retained earnings whenever comparative balance sheet and income statement are present. Retained earnings comprises of retained earnings at the beginning, paid dividend and net income . (Atrill McLaney, 2008) Audit committee: The audit committee of Sainsbury include members such as Gary Hughes who with the help of John Mc Adam and Mary Harris and others consisted of the audit committee. The audit committee became the integral part of the corporate framework to fulfil the board of directors stewardship accountability to its outside constituencies. The work of audit committee is active since the accounting and auditing process are focus to modify (J Sainsbury 2009). Purpose: The audit committee is selected by board to (Louis Braiotta, 2010): Directly responsible for reimbursement and supervision of the companys independent auditor employed by the company for the purpose of preparing and issuing an audit report. Assist the board in monitoring The reliability of the financial reporting process, systems of internal controls and financial statements and reports of Company. To assess the companys internal audit functions The compliances by the Company the legal and dictatorial needs. Internal Control: The board of the Sainsbury have the responsibility for the control which is included in the companys operations which also includes risk management. The audit committee has been provided with several of these responsibilities. The internal control has been designed in the way that it manages rather than to eliminate the risk of failure in achieving the objectives of the company (J Sainsbury 2009). CONCLUSION From the report it can be said that Sainsbury had a bad year as their gross profit decreased. The company has used its earning to improve its position by investing in restructuring and by paying the dividend to shareholders. But EPS shows that there was decline in shareholders value. The companys cash flow is in danger as it excess spending is financed by excess gains. RECOMMENDATIONS: Sainsbury has gone through difficulties in marketing, supply chain and financial management. To lead the market they have to supply good quality food at low price as its rivalry Tesco is doing to gain consumers. Though they have invested their funds in long term project it is advisable to them that they cut down prices to gain consumers attention. It is advisable to investors that Sainsbury will grow in future as they do have strong position in market even if it is far behind its competitor Tesco (Tesco, 2009)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Woodrow Wilsons Reasons to Die a Disappointed Man Essay

Woodrow Wilsons Reasons to Die a Disappointed Man It is said that Woodrow Wilson died a disappointed man after presidency where he failed to complete his aims; his last defeat was when America had to decline entry from the League of Nations, which was his last aim even though it contradicted his original aims. He started his presidency with the aim to keep well out of world affairs; he even went as far as to say It would be an irony of fate if my administration had to deal chiefly with foreign affairs He had little or no experience of dealing with foreign affairs, and as a democrat it was his aim to not get involved with them. His and his secretary of state William Bryans few views†¦show more content†¦This was one of Wilsons first achievements, and also one that did not fail at a later date. But unfortunately he was criticised by the republicans because of the fact that during his presidency he dealed with foreign affairs more that the republican Dollar Deplomacy had been set up to do, he was mocked with the name 10-cent Deplomacy by the New York Times. Another achievement could be seen as the treaties Bryan had set up with 30 countries during the years 1913 and 1914. The treaties called for the countries to go to an International Arbitration Panel for discussions about disagreements with other countries, before resorting to war. This could have been a success but when the treaties were put into practise they failed, the time between the disagreement and the declaration of war was too long so the agreement to discuss was ignored and war began. The biggest example of the failure of the treaties to avoid war was World War One. Wilsons involvement in Mexico could be seen as very successful. In 1913 General Victoriano Huerta, after a revolution, took over Mexico, which at the time was a poor, badly run, violent and corrupt country. The new control of Mexico threatened Americas borders; so to gain control of Mexico again Wilson invoked the Roosevelt Corollary. He did not invoke it publicly though because it was a republican and

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Supporting Change within Organisations for Business- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theSupporting Change within Organisations for Business. Answer: Introduction This report has been executed on Supporting change within organisations which will discuss the different aspects related to change and management of change in an organisation. Change is an important part of every organisation which affects the functioning and performance of the organisation. Management of change needs to be done in a proper manner for enhancing the performance of the organisation. Farm superstores need to analyse these changes and manage these changes in an effective manner. This report will discuss the various factors responsible for the change, the impact of the change, factors involved in the change process, approach for change management, different behavioural responses and ways for supporting the individuals during organisational change. Factors explaining the reason behind need to change in the organisation Changes are occurring in the different factors present in the business environment which affects the performance of the business. These factors which act as reasons behind the need to change in Farm superstores are stated below: Technology: technological advancements or changes are taking place due to which business need to implement the change. Innovations in the technology forces Farm superstores to adopt the change for enhancing the performance by implementing technological advancements (Kaynak Basi, 2010). Competition: there has been a rise in the level of competition in the industry. This increase in the competition has forced the businesses to adopt the change. Improvement in the process: improvement in the process is another reason which is responsible for the need to change. Change in the legal framework: Change in the legal framework affects the operations or processes of the business. This change in the legal framework results in a need to change. Identification of opportunities: main motive of every business is growth and for the attainment of this objective business need to identify the opportunities and implement the changes for grabbing the opportunities (Jean, 2010). Change in customer needs: change in the taste and preference of the customers can affect the current process or structure of the business. Impact of change on organisation Change can be explained as the alterations taking place in the work environment of the business. Modifications and changes are required in the structure and processes of the business. For the survival of the business, there is a need to implement the changes taking place in the business environment. Changes are taking place at the workplace of the business due to various factors. These changes can affect the farm superstore in different ways. These ways in which change affects the business are discussed below: Change can result in an enhancement in the efficiency of the company. The change will help the Farm superstore in coping with the changing aspects of the business environment. Implementation of change can enhance the quality of the operations of the business which will contribute towards the efficiency of the Farm superstore (Avey, et. al., 2008). Staying current and updated: implementation of the changes taking place in the elements of the business environment helps the organisation is staying updated. It is vital for a business to stay updated so as to identify the opportunities available in a better manner. Grabbing opportunities available: change management will help the Farm superstore in preparing for dealing with the changing aspects and issues by identifying the opportunities available (Smollan, et. al., 2010). Factors involved in change process For the implementation of change, a change management process has to be adopted by Farm superstore for ensuring that process is successful. Change management is considered as a complicated issue which needs to be dealt in a proper manner. Adjustments for the implementation of the change need to be done properly for ensuring the functioning of the business is not getting affected. There are various factors which play a vital role in the change process. Successful chances of the change management are dependent on these factors. These factors are stated below: Plans: plans need to be formulated before implementing the change properly. Plans will outline the base on the basis of which change will be implemented (Frederick, 2014). Communication: communication is the most important factor for the change management process. Farm superstore must communicate the plans and change which it is planning to implement. Farm superstore may face resistance from the employees which can be dealt effectively with the use of effective communication. Motivation: managers of the Farm superstore need to motivate the employees for contributing to the implementation process of the change. Their support is required for successful implementation of the change (Wittig, 2012). Delegation: tasks of the change management process need to be delegated among the workforce for ensuring that the outcomes are achieved (Desson Clouthier, 2010). Comparison between approaches for change management Different approaches are available for change management which can be adopted by Farm superstore. These approaches or models for change management are Lewins Change Management Model, McKinsey 7 S Model and Kotters change management theory. Lewins Change Management Model recognises three stages which are unfreeze, transition and refreeze. In the unfreezing stage, the focus is on gaining the support of the employees by overcoming resistance to change. In the second stage, change management process is initiated. In the last stage, the stable position is attained. Farm superstore can use this model for dealing with the change in an easy manner but it is a time-consuming approach (Quick Base, 2012). On the other hand, McKinsey 7 S Model recognises 7 stages which are structure, systems, shared values, style, staff and skills. This model will help in developing a better understanding of the organisation. Emotional and practical components of change are considered in this model. The focus of this model is on every stage so as to cover every aspect in a proper manner. One limitation of this model is dependence on each other which can affect the performance of the model (Anastasia, 2015). On the other hand, Kotters change management theory recognises 7 stages which help in the implementation of the change in a proper manner. This approach is an easy approach where every stage is performed one after one. This approach focuses on preparation and acceptance of the change (Quick Base, 2012). Comparison between behavioural responses Different individuals can respond in a different manner towards the change which company is planning to implement. Different levels of the Farm superstore can respond in a different manner such as individual level, team level, department level and organisational level. Farm superstore needs to deal with different behavioural responses in an effective manner. Strategies can be used for the purpose of coping with these behavioural responses of different levels of Farm superstore (Reynolds, 2015). At the individual level, an individual may fear of losing the job, lack of clarity in the roles assigned, fear to perform the new roles and fear related to job security. At the team level, the team may fear of the change in the roles may arise due to the change proposed by the business or change in the composition of the teams. At the department level, the department may fear of the restructuring of the department by the organisation. At the organisational level, fear may be related to the restructuring of the organisation, relocation, takeovers and mergers (Pollack, et. al., 2013). Ways which can be used by HR for supporting individuals during organisational change HR can deal with the change and support the individuals working in the organisation for the implementation of change in a better manner. HR can use different ways for coping with the organisational change. These ways include: An HR can respond to the queries of the individuals for explaining them the importance of change for the organisation and making them understand the role of their support in implementing change. Employees may develop fears due to the change and lack of clarity regarding the change. HR can provide clarity to the views of the employees (Domingues, et. al., 2017). HR can define the role of every individual for the implementation of change in a proper manner. HR can explain the responsibilities of every individual which they need to fulfil for the purpose of supporting the proposed change. HR can adopt an approach for engaging the employees so as to ensure that they are in the favour of the change which business is planning to implement the change. The attitude of the staff can be changed with the help of this approach adopted by the HR (Reynolds, 2015). Conclusion Thus, from the above discussion, it can be stated that change management is an important aspect for every organisation. An organisation needs to identify the changes taking place in the business environment so as to eliminate the impact of these changes on the performance of the organisation. This report has covered different aspects related to the change and change management. This report has explained the reason behind the need to change, the manner in which change affects the organisation, key factors forming part of the change process, approaches which can be applied for management of change, analysing the impact of the change and role played by HR in supporting the employees for accepting the change. References Anastasia, 2015, Major approaches and models of change management, Cleverism. Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S. Luthans, F., 2008, Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors, The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 44(1), 48-70. Desson, K. Clouthier, J., 2010, Organizational Culture Why Does It Matter?, IAEA. Domingues, A. R., Rodrigo, L., Ceulemans, K. Ramos, T. B., 2017, Sustainability reporting in public sector organisations: Exploring the relation between the reporting process and organisational change management for sustainability,Journal of Environmental Management, 192, pp.292301. Frederick, P. R. H., 2014, Organisational Behaviour and its Role in Management of Business, Global Journal of Finance and Management, Volume 6, Number 6, pp. 563-568. Jean, P. L., 2010, Change Management: Some preliminary key factors to succeed in leading people, Linnaeus University. Kaynak, E. Basi, R. S., 2010, Contextual Management: A global Perspective, Routlege. Pollack, J., Costello, K. Sankaran, S., 2013, Applying ActorNetwork Theory as a sensemaking framework for complex organisational change programs,International Journal of Project Management, 31(8), pp.11181128. Quick Base, 2012, Three Types of Change Management Models, Quick Base. Reynolds, N. S., 2015, Making sense of new technology during organisational change,New Technology, Work and Employment, 30(2), pp.145157. Smollan, R. K., Matheny, J. A. Sayers, J. G., 2010, Personality, Affect and Organizational Change: A Qualitative Study, Research on emotions in organizations, Vol. 6, pp. 85-112. Wittig, C., 2012, Employees Reactions to Organizational Change, OD Practitioner, vol. 44, No. 2.

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

Women as Leaders Essay Example For Students

Women as Leaders Essay More and more women are rising to the leadership challenge, even in some of the most male-dominated industries. The increase in the number of women attending university, in the workplace or starting their own business has demonstrated to men who own businesses that women can be both managers and mothers, thus showing their male counterpart that women can in fact â€Å"do it all†. In this paper the history of women in the workforce will be outlined, as well as the challenges they face. The changing attitudes towards women taking over family businesses will be looked at briefly, how women lead along with a comparison to how men lead, and a critique and conclusion of their leadership style will also be discussed. We will write a custom essay on Women as Leaders specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now History and The Challenges Women FaceA number of events have occurred over the last twenty-five years or so that have resulted in the rise of the female in the work-for-pay world. Beginning in the mid-1970’s, women began going to business school and earning their Master’s of Business Administration and, as a result, building on that education and gaining work experience (Nelton, 1999). The days of the one income family are over. Females need to be armed with a university or college degree to be a contributor to this century’s model of the family unit and in this time of â€Å"education inflation†, the demand for higher education is growing at a staggering rate. In the corporate sector, the generation of women who entered the corporate world two to three decades ago have blazed the trail now followed by ever-growing numbers of women (Shaiko, 1997). The great strides women are making in the work force can be attributed to numerous factors including the:â€Å"passage of equal employment opportunitylegislation’s, modifications in job requirements,more females on the buying side, elevatededucational achievements by females, morewomen in business schools, the huge percentageof female business school graduates with‘androgynous’ orientations, and the willingnessof many young women to postpone marriage andchild-bearing.† (Comer, et.al, 1997)While women continue to make progressive strides toward equality, few have risen to the highest positions-leading companies to the new millenium (Andorka, 1998). Fortunately, women can now demand equal treatment in their respective organizations as a result of the aforementioned changes in history. Many companies have policies in places that require equality at work and punishment for those who do not adhere to such policies. There is a vast amount of evidence that women tend to occupy less powerful, lower paid, and lower status organizational positions than men. These divisions not only occur vertically, but on a horizontal scale as well. Women who seek to enter management level positions fight against stereotypes, discrimination, and myths, not to mention the fight to balance work and family. They have also been overwhelmed by unfamiliar products, skeptical clients or customers, guy talk, a scarcity of female associates and little or no empathy (Comer, et.al., 1997). Sheila Wellington, President of Catalyst, a non-profit organization for the advancement of women to corporate and professional leadership, said in a speech on October 23, 1996 to the Economic Club of Detroit in Detroit Michigan:â€Å"Let me be clear, I believe that most obstaclesto women’s advancement to the top are notintentional, they are a result of unexaminedassumptions about women’s career interestsand of policies and pr actices that have existed unquestioned over time in the corporate culture. With real commitment to change, the situationis remediable.† (Wellington, 1996)Perhaps, the â€Å"glass ceiling† that women are under is not the intent of their male counterparts. I believe that it is the socialization of men and women in our society that has lead to this imbalance in the work force. But, somewhere along the line, men have to realize and acknowledge the socialization they have endured is creating much disharmony and discontent among their female colleagues. The Torch is Passed- to the DaughterTwenty years ago, there was no place for women in most family businesses (Nelton, 1999). If they did have a position, it was presumably as secretary, assistant, or some other â€Å"behind-the-scenes† role. The traditional successor to the family business was the first-born son and if there was no son, then the widow was discouraged from running the company and urged to sell the business. Those days have since past. As women are achieving higher levels of education and are being employed in more prominent positions, their leadership roles in family organizations have increased (Brody, 1994. Many young women are refusing to accept the rule of â€Å"primogeniture† (Nelton, 1999). Primogeniture is defined as a birthright or an inheritance. Although women are making great strides in this arena, there is still the feeling out there that the son should be considered first and the daughter as a second option, only if there is no son or if the son declines the offer. But, Nelson says that, â€Å"young women by and large feel that if they want to go into the family business, the opportunity is there.†In each of the cases described by Nelson, the fathers encouraged their daughters to become involved in the family business.As well, each father let his daughter run the show once she was named CEO-the surest sign of support (Nelton, 1999). In more and more families and in business in general, gender is becoming a â€Å"non-issue†. As roles increasingly change on the home front, the business world will soon mirror the changes taking place in the family structure. Nelton also urges women in leadership roles to not lose sight of the bottom line. She says it is â€Å"easy for women to get caught up in the management of people† (Nelton, 1999). She goes on to say that if you cannot prove that you are also profit-driven, you will never make it to the successor level. .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 , .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .postImageUrl , .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 , .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:hover , .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:visited , .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:active { border:0!important; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:active , .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739 .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3db8005c553b613abb2c4ef4b6261739:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: A Comparison of Two Documentaries EssayThe Battle of the SexesThere are many characteristics that women inherently possess that make them great leaders. Women tend to handle juggling many tasks at the same time better than men do. Because women have traditionally been the primary caregiver in the home as well as taking care of the household chores, â€Å"juggling† or time management has become second nature to them. Although women are skilled in handling many tasks, studies have shown that women are for the most part, people-oriented, rather than task-oriented (Comer, et.al., 1997). Women also value relationships and tend to spend time nurturing those relationships with their family, as well as subordinates (Andorka, 1998). Coaching, counseling, and mentoring, and the building of relationships are among the many characteristics needed to be an effective leader. In the past, commanding and controlling were thought to be the answer to gaining compliance and hard work from employees. The majority of men lean toward the traditional ‘command and control’ style and were more likely to view job performance as a series of transactions with subordinates offering rewards for services rendered or punishment for inadequate performance (Brody, 1994). Women understand the effectiveness of immediate praise and tend to be more supportive of one another and the people who work for them. Men wait for proof of achievement before extending gratitude or compliments. In the book, Selling is a Woman’s Game, Nicki Joy outlines the characteristics she feels are unique to women that make them prone to leadership roles: â€Å"The talent to multi-task, willingness to payattention to detail, their interest in people, theirskill in picking up body language, moods andundertones of conversation, and their superiorlistening skills† (Comer, et.al., 1997)It is important to note that while the majority of women do possess all or some of these inter-personal skills, men are quite capable of exhibiting these same characteristics and it is also possible that there are women who do not possess any of these characteristics. Women are also said to be easy to motivate, are trustworthy and cooperative, and are careful planners (Blanchard, 1988). Current studies suggest that women tend to have strong skills in collaboration and group processes. Many behavioral scientists have concluded that, in general, women’s leadership style seeks consensus among subordinates rather than the more typically male independent decision making style. Women are sometimes faced with criticism for being too passive, but if she opts for a more task-oriented, directive style of leadership, she is seen as too aggressive or masculine-a â€Å"bitch† (Andorka, 1998). They use an interactive approach to management in which they encourage employees participation but also attempt to â€Å"enhance other people’s sense of self-worth and to energize followers† (Brody, 1994). Women in leadership roles in organizations are usually highly involved in the day-to-day operations and they seek advice from the community and their peers. When it comes to leadership and management, women â€Å"tend to lead in circles rather than pyramids† (Brody, 1994). That is to say that they lean towards creating a cooperative atmosphere rather than a hierarchical, competitive environment. They possess superior creative problem solving and intuitive management skills, these among their other interpersonal skills have been encouraged throughout their lives and they have relied on those very skills in each and everyone of their relationships. Because of women’s socialization, these characteristics have come to the forefront. As children, women are encouraged to listen, to build relationships, to be considerate of other’s feelings and opinions and so on. As a result, a new breed of leaders was born. The Leadership ChallengeWhat, if any, characteristics of a leader outlined in the Leadership Challenge, do women possess? Well, to begin with Part 4, Enabling Others to Act.Kouzes Posner found in their research that in cases of success, it was almost never done alone. Women possess a superior sense of teamwork, cooperation, and collaboration. â€Å"If the goal is to improve performance, thewinning bet will be on cooperation overcompetition every time. Competition almostnever results in best performance; pursuing excellence is a collaborator’s game†(Kouzes Posner, p. 152). Especially in joint tasks, cooperation and collaboration are keys to success. Enabling others to act is innate in women. Again, as primary caregivers, they are subject to letting their children go and experience life and make their own mistakes, this is just second nature to women. .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 , .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .postImageUrl , .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 , .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:hover , .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:visited , .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:active { border:0!important; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:active , .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285 .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u7dce39da66ade209ac220988ede8e285:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Alchemist EssayReciprocity is key in executing effective leadership. Women focus a lot of their energy and time in maintaining and building relationships with the people around them. Reciprocity is one of the components of building a relationship, â€Å"reciprocity also leads to predictability and stability in relationships, which can keep both relationships and negotiations from breaking down† (Kouzes Posner, p. 157). Reciprocity is described as having the willingness to be cooperative and an unwillingness to be taken advantage of. To foster collaboration encompasses what women leaders are. The sharing of information and resources is, again, like second nature to women. This is through their socialization. That is not to say that all women possess these characteristics, but it is based on the majority through studies and extensive research. Building trusting relationships is the embodiment of the female psyche. Without trust in the people around them, their effectiveness as a leader, employee, wife, mother or friend is non-existent. Women strive for trust in the people they connect with on daily basis and they strive to be trusted. â€Å"Trust is at the heart of fostering collaboration. It’s the central issue in human relationships within and outside the organization† (Kouzes Posner, p. 163). It is a universal fact that women are exemplary listeners. It is the key in understanding the people you work with. To understand what is important to them is crucial to a successful business relationship. To know what an employee needs to feel fulfilled and to work to capacity, superior listening and communication skill are necessary. Celebrating accomplishments are also a fundamental practice in leadership. As mentioned previously, women are more likely to celebrate accomplishments and provide immediate praise to successful subordinates, unlike their male counterparts. Women are drawn to creating social support networks. Once again, women’s socialization comes to the forefront. Females are taught by example that to be happy and fulfilled you need your own little â€Å"support network† made up of friends and family. When women have problems or need advice they immediately call upon their network for assistance. Unlike men, who by nature, tend to withdraw and put the decision making process solely on their own shoulders. ConclusionAlthough women do possess many of the characteristics of effective leaders, they are not prone to lead by example (Comer, et.al., 1997). Due to the clash in the scheduling of work and their personal lives, women are torn between being a driven leader and being an effective leader in the home. But, again, gender is not always the determining factor in leadership capabilities. There are exceptions to each of the rules outlined within this paper. It is important to take note that there are male leaders that possess each of these qualities and are superior leaders. Alternatively, there are men and women who possess little or few of these characteristics and have still risen to the top of their ranks in terms of leadership style and capability.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

How Climatology Is Different From Meteorology

How Climatology Is Different From Meteorology Climatology is the study of the slowly varying behavior of Earths atmosphere, oceans, and land (climate) over a period of time. It can also be thought of as weather over a period of time. It is considered a branch of meteorology. A person who studies or practices climatology professionally is known as a climatologist. Two main areas of climatology include paleoclimatology, the study of past climates by examining records such as ice cores and tree rings; and historical climatology, the study of climate as it relates to human history over the last few thousand years. What Do Climatologists Do? Everyone knows that meteorologists work to forecast the weather. But what about climatologists? They study: Climate variability:  Climate variability describes short-term (lasting years to decades) changes in climate caused by naturally occurring events like El Nià ±o, volcanic activity, or changes in the suns activity (solar cycles).Climate change:  Climate change is a warming or cooling in long-term (lasting decades to millions of years) weather patterns, at different places around the world.Global warming:  Global warming describes an increase in Earths average temperature over time.  Note: Although climate change and global warming are two different things, when we talk about climate change were usually referring to global warming because our planet is currently warming temperatures. Climatologists study the above in a number of ways, including studying climate patterns - long-term that have a bearing on our weather today. These climate patterns include El Nià ±o, La Nià ±a, the Arctic oscillation, North Atlantic oscillation, and so on. Commonly gathered climate data and maps include: TemperaturePrecipitation (rainfall and drought)Snow and ice coverSevere weather (thunderstorms and tornadoes frequency)Surface radiationOcean temperatures (SSTs) One of the benefits of climatology is the availability of data for past weather. Understanding past weather can give meteorologists and everyday citizens a view of trends in weather over an extended period of time in most locations around the globe. Although climate has been tracked for a while, there are some data that cannot be obtained; generally anything before 1880.  For this, scientists turn to climate models to forecast and generate a best guess of what the climate may have looked like in the past and  what it may look like  into the future. Why Climatology Matters Weather made its way into mainstream media in the late 1980s and 1990s, but climatology is only now gaining in popularity as global warming becomes a live concern for our society. What once was little more than a laundry list of numbers and data is now a key to understanding how our weather and climate could change within our foreseeable future. Edited by Tiffany Means

Monday, February 24, 2020

An Outline for the Education in Kuwait Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

An Outline for the Education in Kuwait - Essay Example Secondly, it is more or less sure that the author of this paper was a second language speaker of English. This is because the word choice, the syntax as well as the run-on sentences need to be edited or revised by an editor to avoid any misunderstanding or confusion while reading the article. Reviewing by Each Chapter The first chapter of this paper focused on the background as well as the structure of the essay with the background concentrating on the team from Singapore and the timeline on which the team worked on. The main research question of the diagnostic study was hidden on page 6 as part of the ‘structure of the paper’. Proper writing procedures require that both the purpose of the study as well as the research questions be explicit to the reader and be stated clearly in the introduction section for better guidance. In chapter two, the researchers stated the outcomes as outlined in the document of Kuwait’s vision 2023. The target of the desired outcomes wa s clustered around the making of a complete ‘human’ product. Nevertheless, the seven desired outcomes were general, vague and the explanation of each outcome was shallow and limited to social aspects. Moreover, the researchers did not explain the rationale for stating those seven outcomes within the framework and scope of the study. The desired outcomes failed to have a properly framed link to the labour market and the economic side of the country. The seven outcomes did not state anything about decision-making, critical thinking and creativity, which are fundamental elements in a human product. The third chapter talked about the core pillars that support the education system and the conceptual framework of the diagnostic study within the country. The researchers needed to explain the objects for the eight pillars as the basis for supporting the education system. The team needed to explain the objects that made them choose each pillar with a cohesive definition as used within the study. In the pillars, the researchers failed to place performance management systems under the human resource policies as applied within Kuwait. Furthermore, the curriculum pillar as used on the fourteenth page did not have a clear definition and a teacher as was elaborated and explained in detail on pages 15 to 18 short compared it to the education. Conventional writing has it that the reader needs to know the theories behind the conceptual framework as used in any study. The conceptual framework should lay down assumptions,  principles and  rules, and then bind them together to produce a broad  concept, which is easily understandable by all readers. Due to the short explanation in the conceptual framework part, the whole essay from the study appears quite unclear. This chapter, therefore, requires to be holistically revised in order to make it the guidance and the lens to the entire essay. Even if this study was about diagnosing the system, the reader needs to co mprehend the rules behind using a quantitative and qualitative method, which are not clear as from the study. An analysis of the fourth chapter uses 2400 participants, which does not specify whether this figure was a sum to all the students, parents, teachers as well as the principle. The study needed to have a tabulation of the different categories of participants as well as give a clear picture of the all the participants.     Ã‚